Stone masonry is one of the oldest and most durable construction techniques used by mankind. It involves the use of stones to create structures, walls, and other architectural elements. Stone masonry can be classified into different types based on the arrangement and shape of stones used. Two common classifications of stone masonry are Rubble Masonry and Ashlar Masonry.
Rubble masonry is a type of stone masonry where irregularly shaped stones of different sizes are used. These stones are rough and uncut, and they are laid without any regular pattern or arrangement. The gaps between the stones are filled with mortar or smaller stones called spalls. Rubble masonry is commonly used for the construction of foundations, retaining walls, and boundary walls.
Rubble masonry is further classified into four subtypes:
1. Uncoursed Rubble Masonry
Uncoursed rubble masonry is the simplest and most basic type of rubble masonry. In this method, stones of different sizes and shapes are randomly placed without any specific pattern or arrangement. The stones are laid in mortar, and the gaps between them are filled with smaller stones or mortar. Uncoursed rubble masonry is commonly used for non-load-bearing walls, boundary walls, and garden walls.
2. Random Rubble Masonry
Random rubble masonry is similar to uncoursed rubble masonry but with a slightly more organized approach. The stones used in random rubble masonry are carefully selected to ensure a rough uniformity in size and shape. However, they are still not arranged in any specific pattern. Random rubble masonry is commonly used for load-bearing walls, retaining walls, and foundations.
3. Coursed Rubble Masonry
Coursed rubble masonry is a more sophisticated form of rubble masonry. In this method, the stones are carefully selected and arranged in horizontal layers or courses. The stones within each course are roughly of the same height, and the courses are separated by horizontal mortar joints. Coursed rubble masonry provides a more uniform and aesthetically pleasing appearance. It is commonly used for decorative walls, facades, and architectural elements.
4. Dry Rubble Masonry
Dry rubble masonry, as the name suggests, does not use mortar to bind the stones together. Instead, the stones are carefully selected and arranged to interlock with each other. The stability of the structure relies on the precise fitting of the stones. Dry rubble masonry is commonly used for boundary walls, garden walls, and landscaping features.
Each type of rubble masonry has its own advantages and considerations. The choice of the type depends on various factors such as the purpose of the structure, the load-bearing requirements, and the desired aesthetic appeal. It is important to consult with a professional architect or engineer to determine the most suitable type of rubble masonry for your specific project.
Ashlar masonry is a type of stone masonry where carefully cut and dressed stones are used. The stones are shaped and sized to fit together perfectly, creating a regular and uniform appearance.
There are six main types of ashlar masonry, each with its own unique characteristics and uses. Understanding these different types can help you make informed decisions when it comes to choosing the right type of ashlar for your construction project.
1. Ashlar Fine
Ashlar Fine is the highest quality and most refined type of ashlar masonry. It involves the use of precisely cut and dressed stones that are uniform in size and shape. The joints between the stones are very thin and almost invisible, creating a seamless and elegant look. Ashlar Fine is commonly used in high-end buildings and monuments.
2. Ashlar Rough Tooled
Ashlar Rough Tooled is a type of ashlar masonry that has a rough and textured surface. The stones are cut to a uniform size, but the edges and surfaces are left rough, giving the masonry a rustic and natural appearance. This type of ashlar is often used in traditional and rural-style buildings.
3. Ashlar Rock, Rustic
Ashlar Rock, Rustic is a variation of ashlar masonry that mimics the look of natural rock. The stones used in this type of ashlar are irregularly shaped and have a rough surface. The masonry is designed to resemble a natural rock formation, creating a rugged and organic look. Ashlar Rock, Rustic is commonly used in outdoor applications and in buildings with a natural or rustic design.
4. Quarry Faced
Quarry Faced ashlar masonry involves the use of stones that have a rough and uneven face, similar to what is found in quarries. The stones are roughly shaped and then used to create a textured and rugged appearance. This type of ashlar is often used in buildings with a more industrial or raw aesthetic.
5. Ashlar Chamfered
Ashlar Chamfered is a type of ashlar masonry that features stones with beveled edges. The edges of the stones are cut at a specific angle, creating a chamfered or sloping effect. This type of ashlar is commonly used in buildings with a modern or contemporary design, as it adds a sleek and sophisticated touch.
6. Ashlar Facing
Ashlar Facing is a type of ashlar masonry where the facing stones are used as a decorative element rather than for structural support. These stones are usually thin and are applied to the surface of a wall or structure to create a visually appealing faced. Ashlar Facing can be used in combination with other types of masonry to add depth and texture to a building.
Ashlar masonry is commonly used for the construction of high-quality and decorative structures such as monuments, temples, and palaces. The precise cutting and fitting of stones in ashlar masonry require skilled craftsmanship.
In conclusion, stone masonry can be classified into different types, with rubble masonry and ashlar masonry being two common classifications. Rubble masonry uses irregularly shaped stones laid without any regular pattern, while ashlar masonry uses carefully cut and dressed stones for a regular and uniform appearance. Both types of masonry have their own applications and advantages in construction.